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Aitken, S 2001, NOF Training Unit 5: ICT Resources for People with Multiple Disabilities, Inclusive Consultancy and Training Ltd, UK.

Aldred, C, Green, J, Adams, C 2004, ‘A New Social Communication Intervention for Children with Autism: Pilot Randomized Controlled Treatment Study Suggesting Effectiveness’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol 45, no 8, pp 1420–1430.

Baker, S, Russell, G, Steve, G 2003, ‘Teaching Expressive Writing to Students with Learning Disabilities: Research-based Applications and Examples’, Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol 36, no 2, pp 109–123.

Baumann, J, Kameemui, EJ & Ash, G 2003, ‘Research on Vocabulary Instruction: Voltaire Redux’, Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts, Sponsored by International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachers of English (eds), Flood, D, Lapp, D, Squire, JR, Jensen, JM.

Beck, IL, McKeown, MG, Kucan, L 2002, Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction, The Guilford Press, New York NY.

Beukelman, DR & Mirenda, P 2005, Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Supporting Children and Adults with Complex Communication Needs, 3rd edn, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore MD.

Bondy, A & Frost, L 2002, A Picture’s Worth: PECS and Other Visual Communication Strategies, Woodbine House, Bethesa MD.

Butterfield, N & Arthur, M 1995, ‘Shifting the Focus, Emerging Priorities in Communication Programming for Students with Severe Disabilities’, Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, vol 30, no 1, pp 41–50.

Carnine, DW, Silbert, J, Kaméenui, EJ, Tarver, SG 2010, Direct Instruction Reading, 5th edition, Merrill, Boston MA.

Carter, M, Cassar, M, Duke, K, Hook, J, Korner, H, Wiese, M & Williams, J 1995, ‘A Collaborative Team Approach to the Education of Students with High Support Needs’, Special Education Perspectives, vol 4, no 1, pp 37–44.

Carter, M & Hook, J 1998, ‘Communication Programming for Students with High Support Needs: A Model for Deciding what to Teach’, Special Education Perspectives, vol 7, pp 42–55.

Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA), 2002, Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read, University of Michigan School of Education, Michigan, go to and follow the links.

Chard, DJ, Vaughn, S, Tyler, BJ 2002, ‘A Synthesis of Research on Effective Interventions for Building Reading Fluency with Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities’, Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol 35, no 5, pp 386–406.

Cooper, DH, Roth, FP, Speece, DI & Schatschneider, C 2002, ‘The Contribution of Oral Language Skills to the Development of Phonological Awareness’, Applied Psycholinguistics, vol 23, no 3, pp 399–416.

Department of Education and Training NSW, From Assessment to Programming: Assisting Students Requiring Additional Support in Reading, DET NSW.

Derewianka, B 1998, A Grammar Companion for Primary Teachers, Primary English Teaching Association Australia (PETAA), Sydney, Australia. (Now in 2nd edition 2011, A New Grammar Companion for Teachers, PETAA.)

Dewart, H & Summers, S 1995, The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Children, revised edn.

Dodd, B 2005, Differential Diagnosis and Treatment with Speech Disorder, 2nd edn, Whurr, London.

Fox, M 1999, Koala Lou, Penguin Australia.

Ganske, K, Monroe, K, Strickland, S 2003, ‘Questions Teachers ask about Struggling Readers and Writers’, Reading Teacher, vol 57, no 2, pp 118–128.

Goossens, C, Crain, S & Elder, P 1992, Engineering the Preschool Environment for Interactive, Symbolic Communication, Southeast Augmentative Communication Conference Publications, Birmingham AL.

Graham, S, & Harris, KR 2005, ‘Improving the Writing, Knowledge and Motivation of Struggling Young Writers: Theoretical and Programmatic Research from the Center on Accelerating Student Learning’, Journal of Special Education, vol 39, no 1, pp 19–33.

Graham, S & Harris, KR 2005, Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore MD.

Graham, S, Harris, KR, Chorzempa, BF 2002, ‘Contribution of Spelling Instruction to the Spelling, Writing, and Reading of Poor Spellers’, Journal of Educational Psychology, vol 94, no 4, pp 669–686.

Harris, KR, Graham, S, Mason, LH 2003, ‘Self-Regulated Strategy Development in the Classroom: Part of a Balanced Approach to Writing Instruction for Students with Disabilities’, Focus on Exceptional Children, vol 35, no 7, pp 1–16.

Harris, K, Graham, S, Mason, LH 2006, ‘Improving the Writing, Knowledge and Motivation of Struggling Young Writers: Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development with and without Peer Support’, American Educational Research Journal, vol 43, no 2, pp 295–337.

Hess, M & Wheldall, K 1999, ‘Strategies for Improving the Written Expression of Primary Children with Poor Writing Skills’, Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol 4, no 4, pp 14–20.

Howell, KW, Fox, SL, Morehead, MK 1993, Curriculum-Based Evaluation, Teaching and Decision Making, revised 2nd edn, Pacific Grove CA.

Jackson, A & Ulliana, L 2008, ‘The Expressive Skills Questionnaire’, Servam for Autism: A Handbook for Parents, go to and follow the links.

Jackson, A & Ulliana, L 2008, ‘Visual Supports’, Servam for Autism: A Handbook for Parents, go to and follow the links.

Johnson, DD, Johnson, B & Scliting, K 2004, ‘Logology: Word and Language Play’, in Vocabulary Instructions: Research to Practice, JF Baumann, & E Kameenui, (eds), Guilford Press, New York NY.

Juel, C, Deffes, R 2004, ‘Making Words Stick’, Educational Leadership, vol 61, no 6, p 30.

Justice, LM 2006, ‘Evidence-Based Practice, Response to Intervention, and the Prevention of Reading Difficulties’, Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, vol 37, pp 284–297.

Kameenui, EJ, Carnine DW, Dixon RC, Simmons, DC, Coyne MD (eds) 2002, Effective Teaching Strategies that Accommodate Diverse Learners, 2nd edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ.

Kameenui, EJ & Simmons, DC 1990, Designing Instructional Strategies, Merrill Publishing, Columbus OH.

Kiddey, P & Waring, F 2005, Success for All, Selecting Appropriate Learning Strategies, Curriculum Corporation, South Carlton VIC.

Lewis, BA, Freebaim, LA & Taylor, HG 2000, ‘Follow-up of Children with Early Expressive Phonology Disorders’, Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol 33, no 5, 433–444.

Lewis, BA, Freebaim, LA & Taylor, HG 2000, ‘Predicting School–Age Outcomes for Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders’, Journal of Communication Disorders, vol 33, pp 11–30.

Lewis, BA, Freebaim, LA & Taylor, HG 2002, ‘Correlates of Spelling Abilities in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders’, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol 15, pp 389–407.

Light, JC, Beukelman, DR & Reichle, J 2003, Communicative Competence for Individuals Who Use AAC: From Research to Effective Practice, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore MD.

Mastropieri, MA & Scruggs, TE 2002, Effective Instruction for Special Education, 3rd edn, Pro-ed, Austin TX.

McAfee, J 2002, Navigating the Social World: A Curriculum for Individuals with Aspergers Syndrome, High Functioning Autism, and Related Disorders, Future Horizons, Arlington TX.

Mehrabian, A 2007, Nonverbal Communication, Aldine Transaction, Piscataway NJ.

National Center to Improve Practice in Special Education through Technology, Media and Materials 1996, Ready! SETT! Go! Online Workshop, Background Materials and Resources – Part III: The SETT Framework, NCIP go to and follow the links.

National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy 2005, Teaching Reading, Department of Education, Science and Training, Commonwealth of Australia, go to and follow the links.

National Joint Committee for the Communicative Needs of Persons With Severe Disabilities 1992, Guidelines for Meeting the Communication Needs of Persons with Severe Disabilities, vol 34 (March, Supp. 7), American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, pp 1–8, go to and follow the links.

Nippold, MA 1998, Later Language Development: the School Age and Adolescence Years, 2nd edn, Pro-Ed, Austin TX.

NSW Department of Education and Training 2000, Programming and Strategies Handbook: Assisting Year 3 and Year 5 Students who Need Additional Support in Literacy, Student Service and Equity Programs: Disabilities and Learning Difficulties Unit, DET NSW.

NSW Department of Education and Training Curriculum Support Directorate 1998, Teaching Spelling K–6, DET NSW.

Owens, RE 1991, Language Disorders: A Functional Approach to Assessment and Intervention, Merrill, New York NY.

Owens, RE 2008, Language Development: An Introduction, 7th edn, Pearson Education, USA.

Purdie, N & Ellis, L 2005, A Review of the Empirical Evidence Identifying Effective Interventions and Teaching Practices for Students with Learning Difficulties in Year 4, 5, and 6, Australian Council for Education Research (ACER), Victoria, Australia go to and follow the links.

Reichle, J, Beukelman, DR & Light JC (eds) 2002, Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators: Implications for AAC, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore MD.

Riley, J & Reedy, D 2000, Developing Writing for Different Purposes: Teaching about Genre in the Early Years, Paul Chapman, London.

Romski, MA & Sevcik, RA 1996, Breaking the Speech Barrier, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore MD.

Rose, J 2006, Independent Review of the Teaching of Early Reading, Department for Education and Skills, Nottingham, go to and follow the links.

Rosenshine, B 1995, ‘Advances in Research on Instruction’, Journal of Educational Research, vol 88, no 5, pp 262–268.

Rowland, C (ed) 2009, Assessing Communication & Learning in Young Children who are Deafblind or who have Multiple Disabilities, Design to Learn Projects, Oregon Health & Science University, go to and follow the links.

Rowland, C 2010, The Communication Matrix, Design to Learn, go to and follow the links.

Rowland C & Schweigert, P 2000, ‘Tangible Symbols: Tangible Outcomes’, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, vol 16, no 1, pp 61–78.

Schlosser, RW (ed) 2003, The Efficacy of Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Toward Evidence-based Practice, Academic Press, San Diego CA.

Shalleck-Klein, J 1998, ‘Nonverbal Body Language does the Talking’, Silverchips Online: Features, December 17.

Sigafoos, J, Arthur-Kelly, M, & Butterfield, N 2006, Enhancing Everyday Communication for Children with Disabilities, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore MD.

Strickland, DS, Ganske, K, Monroe, JK 2002, Supporting Struggling Readers and Writers: Strategies for Classroom Intervention 3–6, International Reading Association, Newark  DE.

Swinehart-Jones D 2009, ‘Teaching Students with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments a Decoding Strategy Using Internal Speech and Motoric Indicators’, The Journal of Special Education, vol 43, no 3, pp 131–144.


Trembath, D, Balandin, S & Togher, L 2007, ‘Vocabulary Selection for Australian Children who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication’, Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, vol 32, no 4, pp 291–301.

Ulliana, L & Mitchell, R 1997, Functional Assessment Comprehension Skills (FACS), The Autistic Association of New South Wales, Forestville NSW.

Westling, DL & Fox, L 1995, Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities, Merrill, Upper Saddle River NJ.

Westwood, P 2004, Learning and Learning Difficulties: A Handbook for Teachers, ACER Press, Camberwell VIC.

Westwood, P 2006, Teaching and Learning Difficulties: Cross-curricular Perspectives, ACER Press, Camberwell VIC.

Wiig, EH & Semel, EM 1984, Language Assessment and Intervention for the Learning Disabled 2nd edn, Merrill OH.

Williams, S 1997, I Went Walking, (Braille edition), MacMillan/McGraw-Hill, NY.

Wise, JC, Sevcik RA, Morris, RD, Lovett, MW, Wolf, M 2007, ‘The Relationship Among Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension, Pre-Reading Skills, Word Identification Skills, and Reading Comprehension by Children with Reading Disabilities’, Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, vol 50, pp 1093–1109.

Wright, J, The Instructional Hierarchy: Linking Stages of Learning to Effective Instructional Techniques, go to and follow the links.

Zito, JR, Adkins, M, Gavins, M 2007, ‘Self-Regulated Strategy Development: Relationship to the Social-Cognitive Perspective and the Development of Self-Regulation’, Reading & Writing Quarterly, vol 23, no 1, pp 77–95.


Aplin, SR, Barton, PH, ‘Stretching Song’, © ABC Music Publishing, (admin Mushroom Music Pty Ltd). Used by permission. All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction is illegal.

Arns, B, ‘Hello Warm up Song’, ‘Hi There, Good Morning’ and ‘Stretching Song’, recordings courtesy Giant Steps, Sydney, Australia. Ultimate 100 Learning Songs © ABC Music, 2009.

Giant Steps, ‘Morning Meeting in Crimson Class’ and 'Bug Hunt' powerpoint, courtesy Giant Steps, Sydney, Australia.

Giant Steps, photographs, wall charts and videos 5-11 courtesy Giant Steps, Sydney, Australia.

Loughnan, J & Haining, C, ‘Hello My Friend’ song, courtesy Giant Steps, Sydney.

Queen, ‘We Will Rock You’ song © EMI Music Publishing Australia Pty Ltd.

RIDBC Alice Betteridge School, videos 1-4 and video12, courtesy RIDBC Alice Betteridge School.

RIDBC Alice Betteridge School, ‘Who is at School’ song, courtesy RIDBC Alice Betteridge School.

Rosen, M 1989, ‘We're Going on a Bear Hunt’, illustrator Oxenbury H, Walker Books Australia.

Sendak, M 1963, Where the Wild Things Are, HarperCollins.

Ulliana, L & Jackson, A, photographs.

Winesap, C 2004, ‘This is A Fish’, Macmillan Education Australia.


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