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1: 'A view of Sydney Cove, NSW 1804' Edward Dayes

A painting depicting a quiet, undeveloped Sydney Cove in the early days
Reproduced courtesy of Mitchell Library
State Library of NSW ZV1/1802/1
ZIP - 12.7 x 8.6cm - 2.7MB

2: 'Might versus Right' ST Gill 1818-1880

Painting depicting European miners using violence against Chinese miners to drive them off the land
Reproduced courtesy of Mitchell Library
State Library of NSW ZPXA1983 f14
ZIP - 12.7 x 9.4cm - 3.1MB

3: `Travelling to the diggings'

Illustration showing miners and horses going to gold mining areas
From The Illustrated London News, 26 February 1853
Reproduced courtesy of Mitchell Library
State Library of NSW F980/1p31
ZIP - 12.7 x 7.7cm - 393KB

4: `Plan de la ville de Sydney' M. Lesueuer

Old map of Sydney and the harbour foreshore
The Antipodes Observed: Artists of Australia 1788-1850.
`Plan de la ville de Sydney', M. Lesueuer.
`Voyage de decouvertes aux Australie ... 1807' M. Peron.
Reproduced courtesy of Mitchell Library
State Library of NSW ZM2/811.17/1802/2.
ZIP - 12.7 x 9.1cm - 637KB

5: Aboriginal Australia Wall Map

Map showing general location of larger Aboriginal groups across Australia
NOT TO BE REPRINTED FROM THE INTERNET
Email Aboriginal Studies Press

6: The Dauphin Chart

Portuguese Dauphin chart of Australia drawn between 1530 and 1536
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com
ZIP - 12.7 x 5.7cm - 291KB

Evidence in Early Maps

Kenneth Gordon McIntyre, in The Secret Discovery of Australia, argues that it was the Portuguese and not the Dutch who were the first Europeans to observe the Australian coastline. He argues this from circumstantial evidence, since all the original copies of early Portuguese maps were destroyed in a fire resulting from the Lisbon earthquake in 1755. McIntyre argued that, because the Portuguese were determined explorers, they would have had to have sighted or known about the large land mass not far from Timor (especially as they intermarried with the Timorese, who were skilled in fishing and annually fished off the Australian coast).

He also argues that the Dauphin Map of the world (drawn in 1536), which was probably based on several Portuguese maps (secretly obtained or copied), shows a strangely shaped land called `Java La Grande'. He believes that this is the earliest known map of Australia. McIntyre suggests that the Portuguese had mapped the west, north and east coasts of Australia but didn't report their findings. It is well known that the Portuguese were highly secretive about their explorations (and most of Australia was within the Spanish half of the world). When the Dauphin Map is redrawn to the Mercator projection, it does resemble Australia.

Source: McIntyre, K G, The Secret Discovery of Australia: Portuguese Ventures 250 Years Before Captain Cook, Pan Books, 1982.

7: Spanish Voyages in the Pacific Northern Voyages in the 16th Century

Map showing voyages made by the Spanish across northern Pacific ocean
Reproduced courtesy of the Australian Academy of Humanities.
ZIP - 12.7 x 6.4cm - 133KB

European Explorers Before the British

Prior to 1419, European sailors had not ventured far beyond the sight of land, believing the world was flat and probably ended in a large abyss at, or just beyond Cape Bojador, Western Sahara. Henry `the Navigator' of Portugal, who was interested in finding a sea route to Asia and the spice islands, encouraged ocean exploration. This created the need to invent a method of sailing that allowed people to sail out of sight of the land, while still knowing their location and a methods for measuring distance at sea. The Portuguese kept their methods and maps secret. The Spanish obtained the method in 1520, when they enticed Ruy Nunes (a Portuguese Hydrographer) and Magellan to work for Spain.

Source: Frost, A, The Voyage of the Endeavour: Captain Cook and the Discovery of the Pacific, Allen and Unwin, 1998.
McIntyre, K G, The Secret Discovery of Australia: Portuguese Ventures 250 Years Before Captain Cook, Pan Books, 1982.

8: Spanish Voyages in the Pacific Southern Voyages in the 16th and 17th centuries

Map showing Spanish voyages in the southern Pacific during the 16th and 17th centuries
Reproduced courtesy of the Australian Academy of Humanities.
ZIP - 12.7 x 9.1cm - 167KB

9: The Trade Winds

Eighteenth Century Voyages of Pacific Exploration

Map charting the Pacific voyages of the eighteenth century
Reproduced with permission: `The Voyage of the Endeavour'
Alan Frost, Allen & Unwin 1998, pp28-29.
ZIP - 12.7 x 7.6cm - 250KB

The Trade Winds

The prevailing winds and currents put Australia in `a black hole'. Until Cook, very few ships had ventured into the South Pacific because scurvy and the prevailing winds and currents made sailing very difficult. The Roaring Forties, or westerly winds, blew from the Cape of Good Hope across and below Australia to Cape Horn. As well, the South Pacific drift pulled ships below Australia and either up around New Zealand or across to Cape Horn. At Cape Horn, both the winds and the current split with some going up the west coast of South America and back east just below the equator. A current runs down the east coast of Australia and away to New Zealand. To the north, the currents run from South America along the equator north of New Guinea, or across to and through the Torres Strait, with winds blowing up from the South Pacific to New Guinea. On the west coast, the current coming through Torres Strait draws away from Australia and the winds blow up and out to sea from the west coast.

Source: Frost, A, The Voyage of the Endeavour: Captain Cook and the Discovery of the Pacific, Allen and Unwin, 1998.

10: Three Voyages of Captain Cook

Eighteenth Century Voyages of Pacific Exploration

Map showing three voyages made by Captain Cook
Reproduced with permission: `The Voyage of the Endeavour'
Alan Frost, Allen & Unwin 1998, pp34-35.
ZIP - 12.7 x 10cm - 288KB

Navigation in the 1700s

At the time of Portuguese exploration there was no accurate method of determining longitude or latitude. Christopher Columbus was convinced that he had reached islands just off India when he made a landfall on West Indies islands - hence their name. To actually calculate longitude, a ship's captain needs to know not only how far the ship has travelled, but how long it has taken. Cook was the first navigator to set off on an expedition of exploration with the necessary instruments and tables, and the mathematical ability, to accurately plot both latitude and longitude. Another advance that aided navigation was the 1760s sheathing of the bottom of ships in copper. This copper sheathing retarded the growth of marine organisms on the ship, something that had slowed the passage of ships through the water.

Source: Frost, A, The Voyage of the Endeavour: Captain Cook and the Discovery of the Pacific, Allen and Unwin, 1998.

11: Map of New Holland

1756 Map of New Holland according to Vaugondy
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com
ZIP - 12.7 x 9.2cm - 409KB

12: Inland Exploration 1788-1815

Map showing inland explorations of Sydney region between 1788 and 1815
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com
ZIP - 12.7 x 10cm - 409KB

13: Inland Exploration 1815-1828

Map showing exploration of east coast of Australia from Moreton Bay to Port Phillip made between 1815 and 1828
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com
ZIP - 12.7 x 10cm - 450KB

14: Inland Exploration 1828-30

Map showing further inland exploration of the east coast of Australia made between 1828 and 1830
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com
ZIP - 20 x 15.8cm - 149KB

15: Inland Exploration Overview

Map showing exploration across Australia between 1875 and 1904
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com
ZIP - 12.7 x 9.9cm - 539KB

16: Australia's Constitutional History depicted on a map

Series of 6 maps showing the formation of states between 1786 and 1859
Reproduced by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
© John Bartholomew and Sons Ltd
www.bartholomewmaps.com

ZIP - 10.1 x 12.7cm - 447KB

 

 

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